Gum disease is caused by plaque. Plaque is a sticky film of bacteria that is always forming on your teeth, and if not cleaned well the bacteria in plaque can cause gum inflammation. Inflammation will cause your gums to pull away from your teeth and form spaces called pockets. Plaque will then get trapped in these pockets and cannot be removed with regular brushing. Untreated, gum disease could lead to tooth loss.
Professional cleaning would be enough if gum disease is caught early on, however if the pockets that are formed is too deep, Scaling and Root planning might be suggested.
Bacteria-filled plaque tends to accumulate in the area along and just below the gum line. You may be at increased risk for gum disease if you have gums that are slightly receded from your teeth, in these cases your dentist may recommend scaling. Scaling is non-surgical procedure that is different from a standard dental cleaning because it involves cleaning the areas of the tooth below the gum line. Patients are advised to perform dental scaling once every 6 months to maintain optimum oral health